This federally threatened species was historically known from three sites in the middle Tennessee River Drainage, but is now restricted to a single spring-fed creek system. As the common name implies, Spring Pygmy Sunfish require cool groundwater and have a maximum size of just over one inch. They have a lifespan of only one year and are vulnerable to random changes in the environment.
- (Articles, if available online, are hyperlinked)
- Sandel, M., F.C. Rohde, and P.M. Harris. 2014. Interspecific relationships and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in pygmy sunfishes (Centrarchidae: Elassoma). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 77:166-176.
- Sandel, M. 2012. Evolutionary relationships and historical biogeography of pygmy sunfishes (Percomorphacea: Elassoma). The University of Alabama.
- Sandel, M. 2011. Evolutionary relationships, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of Elassomatidae. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
- Conway, K.W., and R.L. Mayden. 2006. Threatened fishes of the world: Elassoma alabamae Mayden, 1993 (Elassomatidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes. 75(2):195-196.
- Quattro, J.M., W.J. Jones, J.M. Grady, and F.C. Rohde. 2001. Gene–Gene Concordance and the Phylogenetic Relationships among Rare and Widespread Pygmy Sunfishes (Genus Elassoma). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 18(2):217-226.
- Quattro, J. M., W.J. Jones, and F.C. Rohde. 2001. Evolutionarily significant units of rare pygmy sunfishes (Genus Elassoma). Copeia. 2001(2):514-520.
- Jones, W.J., and J.M. Quattro. 1999. Phylogenetic affinities of pygmy sunfishes (Elassoma) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Copeia. 470-474.
- Mayden, R.L. 1993. Elassoma alabamae, a new species of pygmy sunfish endemic to the Tennessee River drainage of Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History No. 16.
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