The Western Sand Darter is a very widespread but patchily distributed species found in medium to large rivers of the Mississippi, Ohio, Sabine, and Neches river drainages from Minnesota and Wisconsin south to Texas and east to West Virginia. It is rare in the Tennessee River Drainage and extirpated from the Cumberland River Drainage. All Sand darters are translucent, so they blend in with the sand substrate they live upon. Western Sand Darters can be distinguished by a spine on the rear edge of the opercle (gill cover).
- (Articles, if available online, are hyperlinked)
- Thompson, P.A. 2016. Distribution and habitat use of the western sand darter (Ammocrypta clara) and the eastern sand darter (Ammocrypta pellucida) in the Elk River, West Virginia. Unplublished PhD diss. West Virginia University.
- Driver, L.J., and G.L. Adams. 2013. Life history and spawning behavior of the western sand darter (Ammocrypta clara) in Northeast Arkansas. The American Midland Naturalist. 170(2):199-213.
- Cincotta, D.A., and S.A. Welsh. 2010. Discovery of Ammocrypta clara (western sand darter) in the Upper Ohio River of West Virginia. The American Midland Naturalist. 163(2):318-326.
- Tucker, J.K., and F.A. Cronin. 1997. The western sand darter (Ammocrypta clara) in Pool 26 of the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois state academy of science. 89:221-224.
- Pezold, F., N.H. Douglas, and S.G. George. 1993. A status survey of the western sand darter, Ammocrypta clara, in the Big Black River, Mississippi. In Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings. 27:2-6.
- Linder, A.D. 1959. The American percid fishes Ammocrypta clara Jordan and Meek and Ammocrypta pellucida (Baird). The Southwestern Naturalist. 176-184.
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