Trinectes maculatus
About This Fish

The Hogchoker is widespread along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Massachusetts to South America. This is a predominantly marine species that is also found in freshwater streams and rivers on the Coastal Plain, often over soft substrate. Like all flatfishes, Hogchokers have both eyes on one side of their head. They differ from other flatfishes in the region by having their eyes on the right side of their head and a straight lateral line. Hogchokers are small flatfish with a maximum size of only eight inches.


Curti, K.L. 2005. Patterns in the distribution, diet and trophic demand of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, in the Chesapeake Bay, USA (Doctoral dissertation). https://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/handle/1903/2572/umi-umd-2459.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Derrick, P.A., and V.S. Kennedy. 1997. Prey selection by the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Pisces: Soleidae), along summer salinity gradients in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Marine Biology, 129(4), 699-711. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s002270050213

Peterson-Curtis, T.L. 1997. Effects of salinity on survival, growth, metabolism, and behavior in juvenile hogchokers, Trinectes maculatus fasciatus (Achiridae). Environmental biology of fishes, 49(3), 323-331. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1007361417759

Peterson-Curtis, T.L. 1996. Partial life history of southern hogchokers, Trinectes maculatus fasciatus, in the Back Bay of Biloxi, Mississippi. Gulf of Mexico Science, 14(2), 4. https://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1267&context=goms

Peterson, T.L. 1996. Seasonal migration in the southern hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus fasciatus (Achiridae). Gulf and Caribbean Research, 9(3), 169-176. https://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1266&context=gcr

Derrick, P.A. 1994. Feeding periodicity and prey selection of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider), in the Chesapeake Bay (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland at College Park).

Smith, S.M. 1986. Reproductive ecology, population dynamics and seasonal movements of the hogchoker (Trinectes maculatus), in the Elizabeth River, Virginia. https://scholarworks.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2691&context=etd

Solangi, M.A., and R.M. Overstreet. 1982. Histopathological changes in two estuarine fishes, Menidia beryllina (Cope) and Trinectes maculatus (Bloch and Schneider), exposed to crude oil and its water-soluble fractions. Journal of Fish Diseases, 5(1), 13-35. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2761.1982.tb00453.x

Koski, R.T. 1978. Age, growth, and maturity of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, in the Hudson River, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 107(3), 449-453. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1577/1548-8659(1978)107%3C449%3AAGAMOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Kobylinski, G.J., and R.J. Livingston. 1975. Movement of mirex from sediment and uptake by the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 14(6), 692-698. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01685244

Koski, R. T. (1974). Life history and ecology of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, in its northern range.

Moore, C.J., and C.R. Posey Sr. 1974. Pigmentation and morphological abnormalities in the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Pisces, Soleidae). Copeia, 660-670. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1442679

Morgan, R.P., R.F. Fleming, V.J. Rasin, and D.R. Heinle. 1973. Sublethal effects of Baltimore Harbor water on the white perch, Morone americana, and the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus. Chesapeake Science, 14(1), 17. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/1350699

Moore, C.J., & C.R. Posey. 1972. First records of sinistrality in the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Bloch and Schneider), and partial albinism within a reversed American heterostomate. Chesapeake Science, 13(4), 324-325. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307%2F1351117?LI=true

O'Connor, J.M. 1972. Tidal activity rhythm in the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 9(2), 173-177. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022098172900469

Peters, D.S., and M.T. Boyd. 1972. The effect of temperature, salinity, and availability of food on the feeding and growth of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 9(2), 201-207. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022098172900494

Dovel, W.L., J.A. Mihursky, and A.J. McErlean. 1969. Life history aspects of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus, in the Patuxent River estuary, Maryland. Chesapeake Science, 10(2), 104-119. https://link.springer.com/article/10.2307/1350839

Dawson, C.E. 1962. Length-weight and standard length-total length relationships of South Carolina hogchokers, Trinectes maculatus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 91(1), 89-90. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1577/1548-8659%281962%2991%5B89%3ALWASLT%5D2.0.CO%3B2?journalCode=utaf20

Mansueti, R., and R. Pauly. 1956. Age and growth of the northern hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus maculatus, in the Patuxent River, Maryland. Copeia, 1956(1), 60-62. https://www.jstor.org/stable/1439252?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Castagna, M. 1955. A study of the hogchoker, Trinectes maculatus (Bloch and Schneider), in the Wakulla River, Florida (Doctoral dissertation, Florida State University).